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作者(外文):Yu-ting Wang
論文名稱(外文):Through the Valley of the Shadow of Typecasting:Julie Andrews and Hollywood, 1964-1982
指導教授(外文):David Stewart
外文關鍵詞:Typecasting. Movie StarJulie Andrews
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本論文旨在探討茱莉安德魯斯(Julie Andrews)於1964到1982年間的電影,以及她與製作人們為克服類型選角(typecasting)所採用的幾種對策。1960年代中期,安德魯斯的電影生涯因膾炙人口的《歡樂滿人間》(Mary Poppins, 1964)和《真善美》(The Sound of Music, 1985)達到巔峰,但銀幕形象也因此被定型受限,加上當時電影工業及市場的改變,導致安德魯斯的事業迅速下滑。
為因應類型選角的問題,導演與製作人們採用三種對策。第一種對策,製作人們讓安德魯斯嘗試在劇情片中演出嚴肅的角色以擴展銀幕形象。安德魯斯的精湛演技雖獲得影評人及觀眾的讚賞,但電影保守的基調卻無益於改變安德魯斯純真善良(wholesome)的銀幕形象。第二種對策,安德魯斯與導演卅丈夫布雷克愛德華(Blake Edwards)合作,希望藉由演出世故、精明的現代女性以改變形象。此外,他們甚至侵犯、剝削安德魯斯過去美好的銀幕形象,利用裸體及脫衣舞,將安德魯斯的性粗魯的暴露在影片中,不但試圖挑戰觀眾的接受度,也批評當代充斥著性和暴力的電影工業。然而,由於安德魯斯所散發的英國貴族氣質與其扮演的一般世俗女性形象不搭,加上她並不性感,讓需要展現性感的劇情失去說服力,以致此對策成效不彰。第三種對策,安德魯斯選擇不再拋棄過去的銀幕形象。在《雌雄莫辨》(Victor / Victoria, 1982)中,她反倒利用過去的形象與歌舞長才,並在影片內加上與現代社會相關的議題,利用表演及扮裝以避免飾演性感角色時缺乏說服力的問題。此對策幫助安德魯斯成功的克服類型選角所造成的限制,並創造喜劇效果,讓本片於票房與口碑皆大獲好評,造就安德魯斯電影生涯中的第二高峰。
This thesis treats Julie Andrews’ film career from 1964 to 1982, a time when Andrews’ career excelled with hits like Mary Poppins and The Sound of Music, but was soon in decline due to typecasting and the changing film industry market. During this period, film producers adopted three strategies to deal with Andrews’ problem of typecasting. In the first strategy, studio producers attempted to expand her image by casting her in straight dramatic roles. Andrews indeed surprised audiences and critics alike with her dramatic abilities. However, the overall conservative tone in the films prevented the transformation of her wholesome image. In the second strategy, Andrews teamed up with director/husband Blake Edwards to deal with Andrews’ problem by having her play sophisticated contemporary women. They also exploited Andrews’ wholesome image by crudely displaying her sexuality in scenes that involve nudity and striptease. The sophisticated and eroticized female images were meant to challenge the audience and critique the film industry. However, they failed because Andrews’ Britishness and aristocratic mannerisms did not suit the images of ordinary women, and the imposed sexiness did not work well for the roles due to her lack of sex appeal. In the third strategy, Andrews dealt with the problem of typecasting not by abandoning it, but by exploiting it by way of her primary talents and contemporary subject matter. In Victor / Victoria, Andrews and Edwards also employed pretence and camp to retain authenticity when portraying sexy roles. This technique helped Andrews to transcend the limitations typecasting placed on her career, creating comic effect that made film to a commercial and critical success.
English Abstract │i
Chinese Abstract │ii
Acknowledgements │iii
Chapter One
Introduction │1
Chapter Two
After the Sound of Success:
Dramatic Films from 1964 to 1967 │10
Chapter Three
Julie Andrews’ Second Makeover:
Blake Edwards films, 1970-1981 │25
Chapter Four
Accepting the Extraordinary:
Success at Musical Films │41
Chapter Five
Conclusion │54
Works Cited │57
Books and Electronic Sources
Adler, Renata. “Screen: ‘Star’ Arrives: Julie Andrews Featured in Movie at Rivoli.” The New York Times. 13 October, 1968. Internet retrieval date: 14 May, 2010. <http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9B07E0DE1130E034BC4B51DFB6678383679EDE>
Andrews, Julie. Home: A Memoir of My Early Years. New York: Hyperion, 2008.
Canby, Vincent. “Screen: ‘Hawaii,’ Big, Long Film, Has Its Premiere: Story is Subordinated to Island’s Scenery.” The New York Times. 11 October, 1966. 13 June, 2010. <http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9E02E4D7143BE63ABC4952DFB667838D679EDE >
Crowther, Bobsley. “‘The Americanization of Emily’ Arrives.” The New York Times. 28 October, 1964. Internet retrieval date: 13 June, 2010. <http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9E02E7D91E3FEE32A2575BC2A9669D946591D6CF>.
---, “Screen: ‘Torn Curtain’ at 3 Theaters: Sinatra Picture also Begins Run Here Newest Hitchcock Film Far Celow Standard.” The New York Times. 28 July, 1966. Internet retrieval date: 13 June, 2010. <http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=980DE2DB1331E43BBC4051DFB166838D679EDE>
---, “Screen: ‘Thoroughly Modern Millie’: Pleasant Spoof of 20’s Opens at Criterion.” The New York Times. 23 March, 1967. Internet retrieval date: 13 June, 2010. <http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9E06E3DE163AE63ABC4B51DFB566838C679EDE>
Dyer, Richard. Stars. London: BFI, 1979.
---, Only Entertainment. London: Routledge, 1992.
Ebert, Roger. “Victor/Victoria.” RogerEbert.Com. Internet retrieval date: 1 Jan., 1982. <http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19820101/REVIEWS/201010353>
Farmer, Brett. "Julie Andrews Made Me Gay." Camera Obscura. 22:2, 2007, 134-143.
Friedman, Lester D., ed. American Cinema of the 1970s : Themes and Variations. New York: Rutgers University Press, 2007.
Grant, Barry Keith, ed. American Cinema of the 1960s: Themes and Variations. New York: Rutgers University Press, 2008.
---, Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. London: Wallflower Press, 2007.
“ Helen Mirren/Foo Fighters.” Saturday Night Live. NBC. New York. 9 April, 2011.
Meisel, Myron, “S.O.B.: Do They Mean the Movie or Blake Edwards?” Rolling Stone. 1981, 22.
Schickel, Richard. “Opinion and Comment: Reviews: Movie: ‘Hawaii,’ with Julie Andrews and Max von Sydow.” Life Magazine. 21 Oct. 1966: 8-12.
Spoto, Donald. The Dark Side of Genius: The Life of Alfred Hitchcock. Boston: Little Brown, 1983.
Stirling, Richard. Julie Andrews: An Intimate Biography. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2007.
“The Now & Future Queen.” Time Magazine. 23 Dec. 1966. Internet retrieval date: 25 Sept. 2009. <http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,840779,00.html>
“The Tamarind Seed.” TV Guide. Internet retrieval date: 25 Sept. 2009. <http://movies.tvguide.com/the-tamarind-seed/119767>
“The Woman Who Broke Up Julie Andrews'' Home.” Photoplay Magazine. 2 August 1965.
Wasson, Sam. A Splurch in the Kisser: The Movies of Blake Edwards. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 2009.
Wolf, Stacy. A Problem Like Maria: Gender and Sexuality in the American Musical. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002.
Mary Poppins. Dir. Robert Stevenson. Perf. Julie Andrews and Dick Van Dyke. Buena Vista, 1964. Film.
The Americanization of Emily, Dir Arthur Hiller. Perf. James Garner and Julie Andrews. MGM, 1964. Film
The Sound of Music. Dir. Robert Wise. Perf. Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer. Twentieth Century Fox, 1965. Film.
Torn Curtain. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Perf. Paul Newman and Julie Andrews. Universal Pictures, 1966. Film.
Hawaii. Dir. George Roy Hill. Perf. Julie Andrews and Max von Sydow. United Artists, 1966. Film.
Thoroughly Modern Millie. Dir. George Roy Hill. Perf. Julie Andrews and James Fox. Universal Pictures, 1967. Film.
Star!. Dir. Robert Wise. Perf. Julie Andrews and Richard Crenna. Twentieth Century Fox, 1968. Film.
Darling Lili. Dir. Blake Edwards. Perf. Julie Andrews and Rock Hudson. Paramount Pictures, 1970. Film.
The Tamarind Seed. Dir. Blake Edwards. Perf. Julie Andrews and Omar Sharif. AVCO Embassy,1974. Film.
10. Dir. Blake Edwards. Perf. Dudley Moore and Julie Andrews. Warner Bros. Pictures,1979. Film.
S.O.B.. Dir. Blake Edwards. Perf. Julie Andrews and William Holden. Columbia, 1981. Film.
Victor / Victoria. Dir. Blake Edwards. Perf. Julie Andrews and James Garner. MGM, 1982. Film.
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