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作者(外文):Ying-cian Wang
論文名稱:製造貧窮: 台灣媒體對貧窮的社會建構—以2000年後的媒體文本為例
論文名稱(外文):Manufacturing Poverty:The Social Construction of Poverty in Taiwanese Media in the 2000s
指導教授(外文):Josephine Ho
外文關鍵詞:a Bowl of NoodlePeach GrannyMiddle ClassClass StructureConsumptionSocial ConstructionMedia RepresentationMedia NarrativeNew PovertyPovertythe Poor
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貧窮是人類歷史中關於不平等的古老故事之一,貧富差距也從未在任何國家消失,但在廿一世紀的一開始,台灣媒體彷彿發現新大陸般追逐各種與貧窮相關的議題。「你就是下一個新貧族」的不祥召喚迴盪在整座島嶼;「M型社會來臨」像是即將成真的末世預言。貧窮,真的隨著全球性經濟衰退在台灣重現了嗎?為何貧窮在國民所得更低的時代反而不見其嚴重性呢? 一向被忽視的窮人也在此時成為新聞媒體報導的對象:人們突然關心起在山上種水蜜桃的原住民阿嬤和七個孫子如何生活,被三個孩子共食一碗麵的故事感動。貧窮在這些人身上似乎又化為道德的象徵,而與經濟領域無關。
Zygmunt Bauman曾說:「窮人總是與我們相隨,但是怎樣才算貧窮,卻取決於和他們『相隨』的『我們』是何種人物。」這句話顯示了貧窮最容易被忽視的社會建構層面。當『我們』指的是國家,窮人是顛覆社會秩序的潛在威脅;當『我們』是中產階級,窮人代表的是未符合現代文明的生活方式;當『我們』是坐在電視機前充滿同情心的觀眾,窮人又是可憐、需要幫助的一群人。在媒體悄悄地接管貧窮論述的主導權之時,探討當代媒體發現了什麼樣的貧窮,以及透露出哪種『我們』的觀點,將有助於我們開拓出思考貧窮議題的另類觀點。
Poverty is one of the oldest stories in human history of inequality, and the contrast between the rich and the poor has never disappeared in any country. However, in the first decade of the twenty-first century, Taiwanese media began to treat poverty as stunning news, as if a new discovery has been made. From the ominous interpellation “You are the new working poor” to the imminent arrival of “M-shape Society”, the poor and poverty in recent media representations are markedly different from the notion of poverty as we had known it.
In the present thesis, I will examine the social meaning and class implication in these representations through analyzing selected media texts. I would like to discuss the way in which they contribute to the manufacture of poverty in Taiwan during the 2000s, including the manner in which pauperization of the middle class, the myth of consumerism, and the moral construction of the poor work together to create a reality that seemingly smoothes over the growing distance and contradiction between classes while keeping the poverty problem in the private realm instead of the public sphere.
Chapter 2, “The Changing approach to poverty: a historical review”, will show how poverty has been constructed as a social problem in political and academic domains since the KMT regime took over Taiwan in 1949, and moreover, why the poor gradually became invisible under the prevailing discourse of Taiwan’s “economic miracle”. This chapter will help explain why poverty has never been merely an economic problem nor an objective fact. In chapter 3, “The media construction of the poor in Taiwan”, I will analyze three significant new faces of the contemporary poor through selected media texts, including newspaper reports, features in popular magazines, and television commercials which mainly appeared after 2001, the watershed of “discovering” poverty in Taiwan society. In chapter 4, “Theoretical reflections on poverty”, I will take examples of “rediscovery of poverty” in the United States and Britain in the 1960s to review some underlying poverty theories which could shed some light on readings of the Taiwanese poverty phenomenon. And in the final chapter, I will attempt to present my own perspective on the construction of poverty in contemporary Taiwan.
Chinese Abstract……………………………………………………………………..iii
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………. iv
Chapter One: Introduction: The “Discovery of Poverty” in Taiwan…………………1
Chapter Two: Changing Approaches to Poverty in Taiwan: a Historical Review……6
Chapter Three: Media Construction of the Poor……………………………………..21
Chapter Four: Theoretical Reflections on Poverty…………………………………..52
Chapter Five: Conclusion: Toward a New Ground of Poverty Discourse…………...74
Works Cited………………………………………………………………………….79
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Media Texts (in Chinese)
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〈大家樂愈演愈盛、各行各業愈來愈慘…品質沒保障、進度沒標準〉,中國時報1987年8月11日,05版。“More Growth for Da Jia Le, More Damage to All Trades” China Times 11 Aug. 1987: 05.
〈五年來,近七成民眾覺得變窮〉,中國時報 2005年4月14日。“In the past five years, seventy percent of people feel poorer” China Times 14 April. 2005
〈孝子一碗麵 總統去函打氣〉,中國時報2006年3月10日,C2版。”President Chen wrote letter to the Wei family” China Times 10 March 2006: C2.
〈魏伯彥打零工 300萬善款分文未動〉,中國時報2006年4月5日,A8版。”Wei still has part-time job. The donations untouched.” China Times 5 April 2006: A8.
〈先生與孩子陪著吳慧萍 提前過完母親節…最後吻別 帶著祝福「一碗麵」媽媽走了〉,中國時報2006年4月22日A15版。”Mother of ‘plain noodles’ passed away” China Times 22 April 2006: A15.
〈每人上限五百元 一碗麵家族 開心買新鞋〉,中國時報2009年1月19日A5版。”The family of ‘plain noodles’ buy new shoes happily” China Times 19 Jan. 2009: A15.
〈除了自己,還有他人〉社論,經濟日報,1988年8月18日,02版。“There are Others Except Ourselves” editorial, Economic Daily News 18 Aug. 1988: 2.
〈省政府加強社會福利措施 台灣將為沒有窮人的地方〉,聯合報1977年6月23日2版。”Provincial government expanded social welfare. Taiwan will become a place without the poor.” United Daily News 23 June. 1977: 2.
〈均富政策效果顯著 所得差距縮短推行小康計劃貧民減少〉,聯合報1978年7月20日2版。 “The policy of even-wealth succeed, the income gap reduced, the Siao-kang project decreased the poor population.” United Daily News 20 July. 1978: 2.
〈記得人間有疾苦〉,聯合報 2003年11月24日 A10版。“Remembering pain and illness of others” United Daily News 24 Nov. 2003: A10
〈一碗陽春麵的故事〉,聯合報,2006年3月3日。Hong, Jing-zih. “A Story of a Bowl of Plain Noodle” United Daily News 3 Mar. 2006.
〈抗癌家庭一碗麵 民眾愛心一籮筐〉,聯合報,2006年3月4日A10版。”People show the love to the ‘plain noodles’ family” United Daily News 4 March 2006: A10.
〈「一碗麵」故事 魏家五小孩 課業突飛猛進〉,聯合報,2006年10月20日A11版。”Kids of ‘plain noodles’ improve their school grade greatly” United Daily News 20 Oct. 2006: A10.
〈「一碗麵」的感恩 幫助窮孩子 父子合製存錢筒〉,聯合報,2006年12月12日A11。“The family of ‘plain noodles’ make money savers to help other poor children” United Daily News 12 Dec. 2006: A11.
〈子媳婿都自殺 阿嬤獨養七孫〉,聯合報,2007年1月29日A9版。“A Granny raised seven grandchildren independently” United Daily News 29 Jan. 2007: A9.
〈一家五失業 日薪800苦撐〉,聯合報,2008年12月8日。”Five out of the family lost their jobs, getting by on NT$.800 per day” United Daily News 8 Dec. 2008.
〈全國電子 足感心廣告打動人心〉,聯合報,2009年4月28日。“E-Life Mall Promotes a Touching CF-‘Chiu Kan Shin’ ” United Daily News 28 Apr. 2009.
〈台北貪婪叢林在嗚咽〉,聯合晚報1990年11月26日,15版。“Taipei Greedy Jungle is Sobbing” United Evening News 26 Nov. 1990: 15.
〈上班族 自認穿西裝的乞丐〉,聯合晚報2007年7月5日10版。“75%
White-collar workers regard themselves as beggars with suit” United Evening
News. 5 July 2007:10
〈婉謝捐款 愛心仍不斷湧入〉,自由時報,2006年3月4日。“Declining donations politely, but loving-heart does not stop” Liberty Times 4 March 2006.
〈M型社會消費 吹平價奢華風〉,自由時報,2007年8月17日。“The Consumption of Affordable Luxury in the M-Shape Society” Liberty Times 17 Aug. 2007.
Chen, Ya-huei (陳雅慧). “The Middle Class Crying Out,” Commonwealth, 15 Aug. 2003:42-50. 〈中產階級的吶喊〉,《天下雜誌》2003年8月15日:42-50。
--- “The Middle Class’ Panic of New Poverty,” Commonwealth, 15 Sep. 2002: 49-58. 〈中產階級的新貧恐慌〉,《天下雜誌》2002年9月15日:49-58。
Huang, Jing-syuan (黃靖萱). “Taiwan becomes downshifting society,” Commonwealth 15 March 2006: 134-140.〈台灣成為向下流動的社會〉,《天下雜誌》2006年3月15日:134-140。
Jhuang, Su-yu (莊素玉). “Beyond the Poverty Line,” Commonwealth, 19 Oct. 2007: 164-176.〈超越貧窮線〉,《天下雜誌》2007年10月19日:164-176。
Lan, Li-jyuan (藍麗娟). “Refuse to downshifting,” Commonwealth 15 March 2003: 146-150. 〈拒絕向下流動〉,《天下雜誌》2006年3月15日:146-150。
Li Cuei-cing (李翠卿). ”E-lifemall earns the tears of common people” Career, July 2005. 〈全國電子足感心賺到小市民的熱淚〉,《Career》2005年7月。7 June 2010. <http://jackyreading.pixnet.net/blog/post/2581537>
Lin, Meng-yi (林孟儀). “To Grasp Five Golden Keys of Promoting to the Middle Class in Financial Downturn” Thirty Magazine 7 Nov. 2008.〈金融海嘯當頭 掌握晉身中產階級的5把金鑰匙〉,《30雜誌》2008年11月7日。4 June 2010. < http://dgnet.com.tw/articleview.php?article_id=3401&issue_id=703>
Li, Se (李瑟). “Is There a Middle Class Exodus?” Commonwealth Nov. 1988: 30-37. 〈中產階級要出走?〉,《天下雜誌》1988年11月:30-37。
Sie, Fu-syu et al. “Waged Earners’ Key Report of Poverty and Wealth,” Business Today 11 Nov. 2009. 〈薪水族貧富關鍵報告〉,《今周刊》2009年11月11日。4 June 2010. <http://n.yam.com/view/mkmnews.php/693006>
Su, Yu-ci (蘇育琪), “Money and Happiness,” Commonwealth, Feb. 1990:12-19〈錢與快樂〉,《天下雜誌》1990年2月:12-19。
Tian, Si-ru. “What are Taiwanese Middle Class worried about? Where is the Solution?” Wealth Magazine July 2008:126-129.〈台灣中產階級焦慮什麼? 解藥在哪裡?〉,《財訊月刊》2008年7月:126-129。
Wang, Yi-jhih (王一芝). “The Rise of the Poor’s business,” Global Views Monthly Magazine. 1 Jan. 2006:169-180.〈窮人商機崛起〉,《遠見雜誌》2006年1月1日:169-180。
Wu, Ying-chun. “The Middle Class’ Worry,” Commonwealth Nov. 1988: 12-19. 〈中產階級的心事〉,《天下雜誌》1988年11月:12-19。
--- “The Era of New Poverty is Coming,” Commonwealth 1 Nov. 2001: 198-209.〈新貧窮時代來臨〉,《天下雜誌》2001年11月1日:198-209。
Yang, Ma-li(楊瑪利). “Why aren’t you, the middle class, angry?” Commonwealth 1 Jan. 2000: 54-62. 〈中產階級你為什麼不生氣?〉,《天下雜誌》2000年1月1日:54-62。
Yang, Shu-jyuan (楊淑娟). “The Anger of Middle Class is Widespread Globally,” Commonwealth, 16 Aug. 2006: 44-48. 〈中產階級怒火蔓延全球〉,《天下雜誌》2006年8月16日:44-48。
TV Commercials:
Lottery, Taipei Bank, ”Ordinary Express Train,” 2003. 樂透彩,台北銀行,「平快車篇」,2003。
Pxmart, “Luxurious Flagship Store,” 2006. 全聯福利中心,「豪華旗艦店」,2006。
Pxmart, “Rice Crackers,” 2007. 全聯福利中心,「米菓篇」,2007。
E-lifemall, “Air Conditioner,” 2003. 全國電子,「冷氣篇」,2003。
E-lifemall, “Chinese New Year,” 2003. 全國電子,「過年篇」,2003。
E-lifemall, “Notebook,” 2005. 全國電子,「筆電篇」,2005。
E-lifemall, “Washing Machine—Father,” 2007. 全國電子,「洗衣機—父親篇」,2007。
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